Mass Coverage of Sciedu Press’ Publications Promote Research and Education

Sciedu (Twitter) is a combination of two words that reflect the primary mission and objective of this organization. These two words are “Science” and “Education.” Basically, Sciedu is a publishing house that works in the field of scientific and educational research publications. Sciedu Press benefits various cultures and branches of science through its electronic versions of research publications.

A number of areas the research journals are targeted to include science, biology, medicine, business, management, economics,engineering, humanities, and social sciences. All its journals are available online for readers and researchers from all over the world. Well-formed and authentic publications are meant to improve research and education.

Sciedu Press doesn’t only publish scholarly electronic journals but also sponsors promising research projects. The literature in journals is developed keeping both the scientific and academic approaches in mind. The Press is also actively involved with international networks who work to promote diverse cultures while advancing scientific and academic research studies.

Quality Control and Feedback System of Sciedu Press

Sciedu Press’ management pays strong attention to quality assurance. They make sure that each and every piece of work that goes out in the press is accurate, authentic, proofread, and most importantly original. Plagiarized work or content that isn’t properly cited has no place in the Press’ publications.

Once the authors are done with the manuscripts, they can send these to the official email address of the journal. The official website of Sciedu Press elaborates the subject guidelines for various research areas that the authors submit manuscripts for. Researchers can easily download these guidelines to make sure they do exactly what they are supposed to.

The quality control system consists of four steps. In the first step, the editors review or skim through the received manuscripts to make sure they are in line with the journal’s scope. The ones that aren’t or have been partially or fully published in another journal before are rejected right away.

In step two, the manuscripts go through a plagiarism check. Advanced software programs are used at this stage in order to make sure that not even a slightly plagiarized content goes out in the press. The third step is for peer review that follows double-blind reviewing system. By keeping reviewers and authors anonymous to each other, Sciedu Press ensures impartial review and editing.

The final decision to accept or reject a manuscript is made in step four of quality control system where reviewers and editors rate a manuscript on a scale of 1-5, one being lowest and 5 being the highest. A minimum score of 2.5 is necessary for a manuscript to get published in the journal. Authors can contact Sciedu Press for more information.

The Role of Sciedu Press 

The press is playing an active role in research development. The scholarly journals help millions of research students and those related to academics to conduct their respective research studies. Its precise quality control systems and selection criteria make sure that only the best thing is published.

Learning the Key Elements of Sciedu Press’ Star System

Sciedu Press (Twitter) is a scientific publishing house that is based in Canada. Sciedu basically stands for science and education. The publishing house has set the highest standards in terms of the content they publish. The research papers published in the Sciedu Press are taken from different parts of the world. At Sciedu Press the aim is to achieve excellence and enable researchers to reach their potential. The papers published in Sciedu Press cover a wide range of topics that include medicine, social sciences, management, business, engineering and sciences. The purpose of Sciedu Press is to give individuals a platform to learn and widen their horizons.

The star system is a new method introduced by Sciedu Press to bring about a positive change in the scientific journal publishing industry. This system has received a lot of praise from all corners because of its simplicity and effectiveness. The star system is in its essence a manuscript selection system. The purpose of this system is to improve the quality of research journals. There are four main ways information is checked to make sure that it is authentic and original. These checks include a basic check, a similarity check, a peer review and lastly an acceptance/rejection decision.

The star system at Sciedu Press is implemented in a very purposeful manner. The overall aim of the program is to reduce errors and make sure that the information fulfills its purpose. At first when a manuscript is received it is put through a basic check. The editor checks to see if the research paper fits the journal criteria of selection. If the paper has already been published elsewhere it is automatically rejected. Once this stage is complete a similarity check is carried out to ensure that the information used in the paper is not plagiarized. Special software called “Cross Check” is used to check the content for plagiarism.

In the next phase of data testing editors review the data carefully. An expert will review the manuscript with the author’s name being hidden to avoid any biasness. From here on the manuscript is sent for a final review where the reviewers decide to either accept or reject the manuscript. Experts get to rate the manuscript on a scale of 1 to 5 and based on this rating a decision is taken. Generally a score of 2.5 out of 5 is considered acceptable.

The star system that is used by Sciedu Press is comprehensive for conducting evaluations of manuscripts. All aspects of the content are thoroughly checked and reviewed. Sciedu follows all the key principles of data checking which is why their method works every time. The team of editors and researchers at Sciedu Press pay close attention to detail and ensure that no mistakes are made. Even the articles that are resubmitted are treated as new and are run through the star system again. The grading system used to check the articles and submissions ensures that only the best manuscripts get published.

If you look at things from an overall perspective you will realize that Sciedu Press has played a major role in bringing about a change in the journal publishing industry. No other publishing house has shown such sense of responsibility and achievement. The star system is a tool that can benefit a lot of people. It makes the job of the editors easier and also ensures that you only get to read quality content.

How Sciedu Press Has Taken the Initiative to Sponsor Scholartools.org

Sciedu Press is a name that everyone in the journal publishing industry is well aware of. Sciedu is up there with the best in terms of content quality management.Sciedu Press specializes in promoting subjects of culture, education and science. The idea is to educate the readers and inform them about the latest happenings in the world of science and education. The diverse content published by Sciedu has shed light on new perspectives and made life easier for researchers. Recently Sciedu Press has taken on a great initiative to help scholartools.org. They have decided to sponsor this website in a bid to improve the standard and quality of research papers. Let’s discuss the various aspects of this collaboration.

Scholar Tools is a special type of online project that has been established to improve the process of educational and scientific research. This project is run and supported by the Canadian Center of Science and Education. All the funds at scholartools.org are injected by a group of sponsors that include Sciedu Press as well. Researchers and writers can now find all the information they need in one place. This is a nonprofit operative which means that you can freely access all the data right away.

A lot of publishers out there might be thinking that what they would gain by sponsoring a nonprofit website. According to industry experts by sponsoring a not for profit initiative you can gain access to a new audience and enhance your reputation. Sciedu Pressis amongst those big names that is currently helping out scholartools.org reach their main goal of self funding. All those publishers who sponsor scholartools.org can have their names published on the website. However there is certain criterion that you will have to pass through in order to be accepted as a sponsor. The scholartools.org rules state that the material from the publisher must be related to the industry and field of work or else it will be rejected.

Sciedu Press has been leading the way in the scientific and educational journals publishing industry. They have already shown that they are a progressive publishing house that is willing to take part in sponsorships of good initiatives. The work done by the Sciedu Press indicates that they encourage the sharing of information with the scholarly community. You could say that they have taken the responsibility to help others upon themselves. Sciedu Press’ contribution will help newcomers in the research industry and enable them to learn more extensively than ever before.

Sciedu Press not only supports quality research but also makes it available to a wide audience. All those writers who are keen to reach a mass audience with their publications should submit their manuscripts to Sciedu Press. The methods of data and information analysis used here are very modern and advanced. Everything from grammatical errors to plagiarism is thoroughly checked by the editing team. The purpose is to provide 100% original content to the audience. Sciedu Press uses a special plagiarism detection system called cross check to ensure that content isn’t copied from anywhere thus protecting the rights of the writer. Furthermore a star system for journal quality is used by Sciedu Press to make sure that only high quality articles are published in the journal. At Sciedu there is no room for unrelated or low quality content.

How Sciedu Press is Using CrossCheck to Fight Plagiarism

Sciedu Press (Twitter) is a very well renowned scientific publishing house from Canada. Sciedu specializes in the fields of science, education and culture. The research papers published in this prestigious journal are thoroughly checked and tested before publication. The high standards maintained by Sciedu Press have earned it plaudits from experts around the world. Sciedu basically uses a variety of modern techniques to ensure that the content that is published is error free and completely original. The team at Sciedu works day and night to ensure that perfection is achieved. The attention to detail given by Sciedu Press really is amazing. Among the newest tools that are being put to use by Sciedu Press is the CrossCheck system. This system is revolutionary and helps editors check content for plagiarism.

Sciedu Press has a zero tolerance policy on plagiarism. Even self-plagiarism is treated as regular plagiarism here. You can’t even use your own published content again for a new research. The editors carefully go through each and every word to see that nothing is being reused from a previously published paper. All articles and papers have to pass through a number of different tests before they are declared ready for publication.

The CrossCheck system has been getting a lot of attention lately. Experts believe that this is the ideal tool for preventing plagiarism. iThenticate is the driving force behind the CrossCheck system. Some of the world’s leading publishing houses including Sciedu Press are already using this system. So far the results have been simply superb which is why more publishing companies are taking an interest in CrossCheck. The iThenticate database is absolutely huge which means that you can easily check previously published works from all major journals.

The purpose of CrossCheck is to give readers the chance to access 100% original content. By eliminating plagiarism the quality of the research papers is improved. The author’s of the content also remain protected because of CrossCheck as their research can’t be misused by anyone. The iThenticate database which is established online has over 80,000 medical, scientific and technical journals from across the globe. This makes iThenticate the largest database of authentic research journals available online for comparison. Publishers can benefit massively using this resource as they can now improve the overall quality of their journals.

Plagiarism is completely unethical because it not only deprives the original author of his publication rights but also wrongly portrays information. All those who are involved in plagiarizing content deserve to be punished. Strict measures are already in place to stop plagiarism but those that get past these measures can now be detected through CrossCheck. In simple words plagiarism can be defined as a form of theft because it involves using something that doesn’t belong to you.

Sciedu Press has made a massive contribution to the overall growth of the scientific journal publishing industry. The changes that they have brought about are unprecedented. Not only does Sciedu Press help sponsor projects it also contributes to create a better network of communication. The role of Sciedu in the industry has been vital and cannot be ignored.

Sciedu Press Launches New Journal for Management and Orgnaization Studies

Sciedu Press, a scientific publishing house based out of Toronto, Canada, has announced the launch of its newest journal, “Management and Organizational Studies”. “Management and Organizational Studies” will examine a wide variety of topics within the field, from strategic management and HRM to detailed analyses of new studies in organization behavior and development, collaboration, leadership, and even sensitive issues such as workplace spirituality.

“Management and Organizational Studies” will be joining a lineup of quality scientific journals including “Biology and Medicine”, “Economics and Management”, “Sciences and Engineering”, and “Social Sciences and Humanities” in publishing a wide range of articles examining the field at a variety of levels. From theoretical examinations of management and organization to empirical, or fact-based, studies and analyses that go in-depth to examine original research and statistics. Sciedu Press has begun this new venture in the hope of shedding light on some of the most important issues in management and organization studies.

This peer-reviewed journal will take a close look at various topics within organizational studies, which span a broad spectrum of other branches of study from anthropology to psychology. The theories and studies being proposed and researched in this field are quickly leading to breakthroughs in schools and workplace, and are helping management professionals of all kinds to develop new methods of organization and leadership to successfully build stronger relationships between large groups of individuals. These relationships can be vital in a number of ways, from the academic success of students to the financial success of large companies.

Sciedu Press had made a commitment with the launching of this new journal to provide peer-reviewed, open-access information to the public via downloadable PDF files. All content to be published in “Management and Organizational Studies” will be chosen through a double-blind peer review system, and upon acceptance the authors will be contacted by email to proceed with the publication process. This is the same method used by some of the top publishers of scientific journals in the country, and Sciedu Press hopes that it will serve them well in helping their qualified staff choose only the best and most important studies in management and organizational studies.

The launching of this new journal is a very exciting prospect for the staff at Sciedu Press. With a name that combines the words “Science” and “Education”, it is not surprising that they are looking for fresh and innovative new minds, as well as seasoned professionals in the field of organizational studies, to answer their open call for papers. Those interested in submitting a paper, whether it is theoretical in nature or a hard empirical study, can submit their paper through the Sciedu Press website.

All are encouraged to participate in this exciting venture from Sciedu Press, whether they are interested in submitting or simply want to access the new and original content that will be made available through the site. Sciedu Press and its supporters have high hopes that “Management and Organizational Studies” will be as successful as the rest of its prominent journals.

Integrating History of Mathematics into the Classroom: Was Aristotle Wrong?

Throughout history humanity has collected an endless record of useful methods of calculation, techniques for solving problems, tools for surveying and measurement, logical problems and proofs. Yet rarely do we observe in the classroom the use of the remarkable method of false positions invented by Egyptians, or Euclid’s algorithm for finding greatest common factor without division. Such examples of great achievements in mathematics seem worthwhile to encourage appreciation of mathematics, as well as to demonstrate how History of Mathematics (HOM) provides conditions for gaining a rich experience and understanding of the development of mathematical concepts and their connections and interrelation. Nationwide professional councils (e.g., National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), National Research Council (NRC) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)) acknowledge the importance of the HOM in the school curriculum. The NCTM/NCATE Program Content Standards (2003) require all prospective mathematics teachers to “Demonstrate knowledge of the historical development” of number and number system, of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries, algebra, calculus, discrete mathematics, statistics and probability, measurement and measurement systems, and knowledge about contributions from diverse cultures” (NCTM/NCATE, 2003).

Furthermore, NCTM (NCTM, n.d.) co-supports a professional development scholarship emphasizing the history of mathematics and its importance and significance for learning mathematics.

Few research studies and scholarly writings (e.g., Swetz, 1994, Swetz et al 1995, Siu, 2004; Weng Kin, 2008) enthusiastically argue that the history of mathematics supplies endless opportunities to trace the roots and development of humanity, development of civilizations, and is likely to make an effect on students’ perception of the power of mathematics.

We concur with Wilder’s (1968) belief that mathematics is a “cultural phenomenon” (p.xi), and that meaningful learning of school mathematics must be facilitated by studying the cultural significance of mathematics, the role of the evolution of mathematical concepts and scientific discoveries. At the same time, we are concerned that teaching mathematics in total isolation from its history impoverishes the learning of mathematics, and deprives students from the exposure to such cultural phenomenon developed over the centuries.

Empirical studies focused on teachers’ perceptions of HOM (e.g., Philippou & Christou, 1998; Schram, Wilcox, Lapan & Lanier, 1988; Siu, 2004; Smestad, 2009; Stander, 1989) found that introducing teachers to the HOM activated their interests in the significance of mathematics and its history for learning the discipline. In parallel, the studies clearly indicated in spite of the peak in personal interest in HOM, these teachers did not express intentions of giving consideration to the inclusion of the HOM into their curriculum. All the above led us to launch a study which examined high school teachers’ perceptions of the nature of mathematics. In particular, we were interested in causes of apparent lack of the HOM integration into classrooms.

We operated under several assumptions. First of all, tracing the intellectual development of humankind by learning about the evolution of at least some mathematics concepts, students would have an opportunity to link the remarkable individuals, who tirelessly contributed to the development of the structure and language of mathematics to the concepts the students learn in school. If students perceive mathematics as a set of discrete topics with no historical background or discussion of historical significance, it is likely they will fail to see the connectedness and relevance of topics within mathematics and among related sciences. Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1973) argued that when students are exposed to varied experiences related to the cultural and historical aspects of evolution of mathematics, they are likely to develop an appreciation of mathematics and its role in the development of our society.

We believe that a historical background provides a perspective that lays a foundation for learning. The HOM may be viewed as a window into the theory of the subject and is likely to provide a non-threatening opportunity for entry learning of mathematics. In particular, it may be beneficial to the student whose learning of mathematics is a struggle. Knowing that in the earliest stages of invention, many of the mathematical concepts were extremely difficult to refine, understand and accept for even the most gifted mathematicians. As an example, it is well known fact that Diaphantus rejected negative numbers and called them absurd. While as early as the seventh century different civilizations in the Middle East used negative numbers to represent debts and positive numbers to represent assets, later on in the seventeenth century in Europe, Descartes rejected negative roots of equations and called them ‘false’ numbers, Pascal regarded the result of subtraction of a whole number from zero as nonsense, and Arnauld argued against negative numbers because in his view they created dissonance in the theory of proportions.

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(Author: Regina M. Panasuk, Leslie Bolinger Horton

Published by Sciedu Press)

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Effect of Learning Communities on Student Attitudes and Corresponding Behaviors: A Mediated Test of Involvement Theory

Learning communities are small pre-selected student groups based on a common interest with a variety of goals related to student outcomes. Previous research has shown robust effects of learning community participation on student success outcomes, but little is known about the mechanisms which may mediate these effects. The current study analyzed two years of data on a large sample of first-year and transfer students using mediated regression techniques and logistic regression to explore the mechanism by which learning communities affect self reported student behaviors. Results showed that being in a learning community leads to positive academic and social attitudes which lead to increased academic and social behaviors respectively. Results shed light on the mechanism by which learning communities affect student outcomes.

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(Author: Daniel Bonilla, Kimberly K. Buch, Cindy Wolf Johnson

Published by Sciedu Press)

Numerical/Visual Elaboration of the Temporal Distance in Teaching Tense-Aspect Distinctions in English

Error for English L2 learners at all levels, which signals the need for a central focus on establishing form-meaningconnections. A wise strategy would be the application of deliberate simplification of the linguistic material only torectify it at later stages. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the ways to benefit from the distance as ametaphorical link between the past and present for its facilitation effect on learning the present, past and presentperfect tenses. The distance was elaborated numerically and visually but the elaboration was kept to be minimum.The links were created between the visual and numerical cues and the target forms through shared partial similaritiesto help associate the temporal meanings with the auxiliary forms of ‘be’ and ‘do’, and the inflection markers of ‘-ed’and -s.In a nonequivalent comparison-group design, ANCOVA and Kruskas-Wallis revealed the experimental group’ssignificantly better performance in tense-aspect distinctions as regards temporal meanings. The results haveimplications for both temporal and nontemporal meanings (e.g. temporal, social or psychological distances). Beingvisual and numerical, cues can be universally applied to diverse contexts.

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(Author: Buğra Zengin

Published by Sciedu Press)

Female Arab Students’ Experience of Acculturation and Cultural Diversity upon Accessing Higher Education in the Northern Galilee-Israel

In this study Druze, Christian, and Muslim Arab female students speak of their experience of acculturation, ethnic tolerance, and discrimination as first generation of women leaving their villages of the Northern Galilee to access higher education in the colleges established in the region.

Prior to accessing regional Western-style colleges in which the official language of study is Hebrew, these women lived in secluded villages of the Northern Galilee in which only Arabic is spoken. Extended family and the communal life of the villages are regulated by Islamic or Druze laws and strict norms protecting women’s modesty, and the honor of the family set the limits of women comportment and behavior (Abu-Rabia-Queder &Weiner-Levi, 2008; Arar, & Haj-yehia, 2010; Weiner-Levy, 2006). Arab students study in a separate educational system that aims at preserving the Arabic language, its traditions, and culture. Hebrew is taught as a second language since 3rd grade, and English is taught as third language since 5th grade.

Like other low SES minorities in the Western world, Arab and other Mizrahi1 minorities living in the periphery of Israel have come to grasp the importance of higher education as a means of social and economic mobility (Arar, & Haj-yehia, 2010; Astin, 1982; Connor, 2004). However, Arab women’s access to Western-style Israeli universities has often been met with the resistance of traditional extended families and community leaders due to the threat to female modesty. For many Arab families universities are insecure spaces in which young women may be tempted to transgress religious and ethnic norms protecting the honor of the family. Consequently traditional Arab families have been facing the dilemma of protecting females’ honor by having them remain in the home versus allowing them to access higher education to increase the social and economic mobility of the family (Abu-Rabia-Queder &Weiner-Levi, 2008; Arar, & Haj-Yehia, 2010; Weiner-Levy, 2006). A similar dilemma was reported by female students from other Islamic countries such as Pakistan who were studying in British universities (Ahmad, 2001; Arar, & Haj-yehia, 2010).

In addition to cultural barriers, low SAT and matriculation examination scores often prevented low income Arab and Jewish Mizrahi minority students living in the periphery of Israel to meet the high admission requirements set by Israeli universities (Abu-Saad, 2005; Al-Haj, 1995; Arar, & Haj-yehia, 2010; Gamliel & Cahan, 2004; Mustafa, 2006). Low psychometric scores have often been attributed to culturally biased examinations and/or the poor quality of education of self-contained Jewish development towns and Arab villages in the periphery of Israel (Abu-Saad, 2006; Al-Haj, 2003; Gamliel and Cahan, 2004; Mazawi, 2003). In contrast to wealthy families living in Arab towns who could afford placing their children in quality private schools and thus enable their children to obtain high matriculation scores, Arab and Mizrahi minorities living in the periphery of Israel are studying in public schools plagued with overcrowding and discipline problems (Abu-Asbah, 2005; Arar, & Haj-yehia, 2010; Gamliel and Cahan, 2004; Mazawi, 2003).

To widen higher education opportunities for disadvantaged minorities United States and European countries have usually enacted affirmative action policies (Deardorff & Jones, 2004; Ntiri, 2001; Shiner & Modood, 2002). In 1992, the Israeli Commission of Higher Education’s adopted the resolution to establish academic colleges in the Northern Galilee as a culturally sensitive solution combining the cultural demands with affirmative action policies (Al-Haj, 1995; Arar and Abu-Asbah, 2007; Budget and Planning Committee, 1997; Hershkovitz, 2000; Layish 1992). The establishment of academic colleges in the proximity to Arab villages, enabled traditional Arab families to resolve the dilemma they had been facing since their daughters had now the opportunity to pursue higher education without compromising the honor of the family as they continued to live at home and commuted daily to the college (AbuRabia-Queder, 2008; Al-Haj, 2003; Arar & Haj-yehia, 2010). Additionally, and in conformity with affirmative action policies the lower admission requirements of the colleges when compared to those of the universities, resulted in a sharp percentage increase of low socioeconomic and traditional Arab and non-Arab Mizrahi minorities accessing the colleges in the Northern periphery of Israel. In contrast to the 11.4 percent of Arab students in Israeli universities, Arab students in the colleges of the Northern Galilee composed approximately 50 percent of the students’ body (Weisblai, 2007). The percentage of female Arab students in these colleges was reported to surpass that of males, respectively 56% vs. 44% (Manna, 2008) and become approximately equal to that of Jewish female students (58% vs. 66%) (Council for Higher Education, 2009; Davidovitch, Soen, & Kolan, 2007).

The experience of lower socio-economic status and ethnic minorities entering institutions of higher learning cannot be fully understood unless resituated within a space of encounter of knowledge, traditions and cultures at universities (Abu Rabia-Queder, 2008; Barnett 1993; Bourdieu 1988). Female Arab students, who had so far lived in secluded villages in which only Arab was spoken, will upon accessing higher education, have to study in Hebrew the official language of the college, and for the first time, come into contact with Jewish students of various ethnic backgrounds. Female Arab students were therefore, expected to go through a process of acculturation which has been defined by Phinney (2003) as a process of psychological, social and cultural adaptation that occurs when groups of various ethnic and/or cultural backgrounds come into contact with one another. Berry’s (1997, 1998) basic model of acculturation includes four acculturation strategies available to ethnic and minority groups: assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Ethnic groups may want to assimilate, that is, absorb their ethnic and cultural heritage into that of the dominant culture. Alternatively, they may want to integrate, i.e., maintain their own cultural heritage while weaving it into the dominant culture. Separation refers to ethnic groups’ wish to remain apart to maintain their own culture and tradition while having little contact with the dominant culture. Separation, however, becomes segregation when forced by the dominant culture against the wishes of the ethnic group. Marginalization refers to a transient or permanent state of lack of identification and alienation from both the ethnic and dominant cultures.

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(Author: Brenda Geiger

Published by Sciedu Press)

Relativization in English and Embosi

This paper examines the syntax of relativization. Put otherwise, I am concerned with the scrutiny of the grammatical properties and syntactic distribution of the relative pronouns. Some previous work shows that some studies on relativization concern the characteristics of the relative clause (Vries, 2002) whereas others deal with the identification of words that can be relativized in accordance with Accessibility Hierarchy Hypothesis (Keenan and Comrie 1977). Accordingly, relative pronouns are characterised by subordination, attribution and gap construction whereas the different words that can be relativized are language specific.

Examination of a set of works prove that there are fewer studies on relativization cross linguistics in keeping with its characteristics. As Murano and Pollock (2005:548) assert ‘a comparative approach is of invaluable support’ .In this respect, the main objective of this contribution is to compare the syntactic derivation of the relativization driving data from two languages from different language families namely English and Embsí. So, I want to find out the grammatical properties of the relative pronouns as well as highlight its syntactic distribution and constraints in English and Embsí. This paper addresses the following questions (1) What are the linguistic inherent properties of the relative pronouns in English and Embsí? (2) What is the syntactic position of the relative pronouns? (3) Does relative pronoun movement operation obey movement conditions? If no, what is the repair strategy that the two languages resort to? (4) what are the possible contentive words that can be relativized?

The article is organized as follows: Section 1 briefly recapitulates some of the arguments that have recently been adduced in favour of the syntactic description of relativization process in English. This lays the groundwork by showing in what way relativization is carried out starting from overt relative operator to invisible relative operator. Similarly, section 2 introduces relativization in connection with noun classes then moves on to deal with depicting words that can be relativized in Embsí. Section 3 concerns itself with the comparison of the relative pronoun properties, characteristics, syntactic position and relativizable words. Conclusion summarizes the key findings of this paper.

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(Author: Ndongo-Ibara Yvon-Pierre

Published by Sciedu Press)