The Role of Motivation, Cognition, and Conscientiousness for Academic Achievement

Based on a cognitive motivational process model of learning, the impact of studying behavior on learning outcome is investigated. First-year students (N = 488) participated in the study. Two research questions were addressed: (1) Can cognitive-motivational variables and objective study behavior predict individual learning? (2) Which factors drive studying behavior? Results show low to moderate correlations between cognitive-motivational variables and performance. A cluster analysis yielded three profiles: (1) interested learners with high academic self-concept and effort investment; (2) low interest learners with high academic self-concept and low effort investment; and (3) interested learners with low self-concept and low effort. Groups 2 and 3 are considered at-risk students for developing a surface approach to learning and for drop out.

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(Author: Margarete Imhof, Tatjana Spaeth-Hilbert

Published by Sciedu Press)

A Speech Act Analysis of the Acceptance of Nomination Speeches of Chief Obafemi Awolowo and Chief M.K.O. Abiola

Studies on presidential speeches as an aspect of political discourse have been from wide range of perspectives. Undoubtedly, political discourse has been a major domain of language use that has attracted the interests of researchers for a long while. This is because political discourse is a complex human activity that deserves critical study particularly because of its central place in the organisation and management of society. Some scholars have examined the communicative strategies employed in political processes and the role of the media in the dissemination of political messages (See Bennett, 1981; King, 1976; Gronbeck, 1978; Ozimede, 1985; Moore, 1987 and McQuail, 1992). Skoniecki and College (2004) examine President Ronald Regan’s of the United States of America’s speech, calling for action against communism, to the people of West Berlin and the world. The speech, ‘Tear Down this Wall’ was delivered against the backdrop of the cultural history of the Americans and it culminates in the opening of the Berlin wall. The study shows the effectiveness of Regan’s persuasive use of language in facilitating the opening of the Berlin wall. Bullock (2003) examines the rhetorical strategies employed by President Bush as means of persuasion for the prosecution of the Iraqi’s war and to justify America’s interest in prosecuting the war. In a related work, Rudyk (2007) examines power relations in Bush’s union speech. The speech which focuses on the semantic, syntactic and pragmatic levels of manipulations, studies the abuse of power in the US-Iraqi war and its effects on the recipients. Pu (2007) investigates the deployment of linguistic and rhetorical strategies in Bush’s speech at Tsinghua University, China.

In Nigeria, there are quite a number of scholarly contributions to the pool of studies on the language of politics. Adegbija (1988) investigates military coup speeches in Nigeria. The paper which focuses the deployment of discourse tact, reveals the effectiveness of discourse tact in ensuring that illocutionary force is achieved in discourse. Oha (1994) is a stylistic study of the war speeches of Yakubu Gowon and Emeka Ojukwu. The study, which probes into the nature and the relationship of style to meaning, examines how the conflict between the two sides is demonstrated in their use of language. Wiredu (1996) looks at style in the language of politics in Nigeria by focusing on the identification of the various persuasive strategies employed by politicians to sway the electorate.

Also, Awonusi (1996) examines the discourse features and strategies in election campaign texts. The study focuses on how Nigerian politicians use advertisement to project their image to voters. Opeibi (2004) is a discourse study of the use of English in the 1993 presidential election campaigns in Nigeria. Opeibi examines how politicians use the English language for effective communication of their goals. Adegoju (2005) examines style in political conflicts in the June 12 crisis in Nigeria. The study accounts for the various ways language is used in defending and promoting personal and group interests and in subverting the goals of opponents. Ayeomoni (2005) is a linguistic stylistic study of some speeches of past Nigerian Military rulers. He observes that such speeches are replete with the use of punctuation marks such as comma and full stops as stylistic devices to show frankness, fearlessness and boldness.

Further still, Adetunji (2009) studies speech acts and rhetoric in the Second Inaugural Address of President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria and President George Bush of America. The paper, which employs a combination of speech act and rhetoric, proves that two contextually contiguous speeches may not have similar illocutionary forces and rhetorical elements even when they belong to the same discourse genre. Babatunde and Odepidan (2009) examine the roles of pragmatics and rhetoric in effective communication in politics and governance. Using select speeches of President Olusegun Obasanjo as data, the paper explores the effects of context, intention and world knowledge on the choice of acts performed in the data. Okpanachi (2009) examines the structure of power struggle and the underlying ideologies in President Obasanjo‘s national address of 8th October, 2003, on the dispute between the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) and the Federal Government. The paper reveals how Obasanjo uses language as a weapon to categorise and portray the Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) as an enemy of the state while portraying his government as patriotic; expressly championing the interest of the people. Significant as these contributions are, none has specifically characterised the acts performed in the acceptance of nomination speeches of presidential candidates in Nigeria. This paper fills this gap.

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(Author: Samuel Alaba Akinwotu

Published by Sciedu Press)

Coping with English as Language of Instruction in Higher Education in Rwanda

A language of instruction is assumed to be an enabling tool which facilitates the learning of content subjects (Kyeyune 2010, Webb 2004). The current globalization phenomenon has pushed many nations to adopt English as the language of teaching and learning (Tamtam et al. 2010) even in contexts where English is a second or foreign language to learners. In principle, using English, when it is a second/ foreign language, as a language of teaching and learning might not be an obstacle to the full development of learners’ conceptual abilities, provided they are fully conversant in the language of instruction (Webb 2004). However, with reference to the African context, extensive research shows that many African learners are not proficient enough in English to be able to use it appropriately as the language of instruction (Alidou and Brock-Utne 2011; Brock-Utne, Desai, and Qorro 2004; Kyeyune 2010; Mwinsheike 2002; Rubagumya 1997; Rugemalira 2005; Vavrus 2002; and Webb 2002, 2004). Although the choice of English is most of the time supported by political, social and economic arguments (Choi and Tam 2011, Trudell 2010), research has questioned the fairness and success of education conveyed through a language that is unfamiliar to both teachers and learners. Through various studies, researchers hold that the language used for learning and teaching is crucial for learners’ acquisition of knowledge and understanding and the development of their skills, and for their ability to demonstrate their acquired knowledge effectively in assignments and examinations. If learners do not know the language used as the medium of instruction well enough, they will have problems to develop educationally (Brock Utne and Alidou 2011; Heugh 2000; Wolff 2011; Webb 2004).

Rwanda as one African country is not an exception to the above-mentioned scenario. Recent research have highlighted the mismatch between Rwandan learners’ English language abilities and the cognitive academic requirements they meet in higher education (Andersson, Kagwesage and Rusanganwa 2012; Andersson and Rusanganwa 2011; Kagwesage 2012; NUR 2010; Parliament of Rwanda 2010). Logically, if language abilities do not match with the conceptual requirement, this would lead to frustration and a request to change the medium. However, English remains the preferred medium of instruction among the students mainly due to the instrumental motivation associated with the use of English as an international language (Kagwesage 2012; Samuelson and Freedman 2010). In addition, university statistics do not highlight increased attrition or drop-out rates as a result of the language through which higher education instruction is conveyed. This intrigued the present paper and therefore, the overarching aim of the present study is to investigate strategies that higher education students use in order to cope with their academic requirements.

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(Author: Kagwesage Anne Marie

Published by Sciedu Press)

Application of Leadership Strategies Secondary to a Book Review

Academic responsibilities focus on delivery of educational programs, establishing clinical practices or other service activities and scholarly activities/research projects. Successful management of these three areas requires leadership abilities. While the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) recognizes the need for leadership development support in graduate and postgraduate professional education (AACP, 2008; Gaither et al., 2009), roadmaps to guide development of academicians are scarce in the pharmacy literature. Mentorship programs as a strategy for junior pharmacy faculty (e.g. instructors, assistant professors) retention have been described in the literature, and were found to be effective tools, but in general have not produced outcomes that are clearly measurable (Guglielmo et al., 2011). Limiting factors for traditional mentor/mentee programs include low numbers of senior faculty (53%) (AACP, 2008) to serve as mentors and the numerous demands already placed on the time of senior faculty at many institutions. Of the pharmacy faculty nationwide, within junior faculty 29% are female and 19% are male, whereas within senior faculty 19% are female while 33% are male. Additionally, organizational features unique to each institution, such as location at a satellite campus, scholarship requirements for promotion, responsibilities secondary to the number of open faculty positions, increased teaching load or clinical responsibilities might contribute to the faculty member’s decision to serve as a mentor (Conklin & Desselle, 2007). Fundamental leadership skills are essential to enable faculty to develop new practice sites, while working with an interprofessional team. All pharmacy programs should offer opportunities to develop leadership abilities in their faculty.

The purpose of this project was two-fold and focused on strategies or resources most applicable to facilitate leadership development for junior faculty transitioning into either academic or clinical settings. The first goal was evaluation of the literature related to pharmacy faculty leadership development programs or models. The second goal was evaluation of participants’ perception of the use of a leadership book and accompanying workbook as a resource for developing leadership skills. This relatively inexpensive resource and process could be useful in a leadership development program for faculty at any level of academic appointment but may be most useful for junior faculty transitioning from postgraduate training into an academic or clinical position.

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(Author: Nancy Brahm, Julie C. Kissack, Susan M. Grace, Lisa M. Lundquist

Published by Sciedu Press)

Strategic Politeness in Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables

Dialogue has been studied extensively not only in naturally occurring conversation but in written literary discourse as well. Besides, pragmatic analysis of literature, as one of the vital areas in literary studies, has been justified and called for by a number of linguists and scholars, namely, Pratt (1977), Burton (1980), Leech and Short (1981), Short (1989), Petrey (1990) and Culpeper (2001). Politeness theory, as a pragmatic aspect, has also been the focus of many studies among which Short (1981), Brown and Gilman (1989), Simpson (1989), Rossen-Knill(1995), Culpeper (1996), Buck (1997), Bennison(1998), Rudanko(2006), Bouchara(2009), Chun and Yun (2010) and others.

This sort of relationship between the two disciplines, literature and pragmatics, has become a motivation for the researcher to conduct a similar study in an attempt to explore how linguistic elements can assist in the interpretation of literary texts. Accordingly, and in spite of its being a bit problematic, Brown and Levinson’s pragmatic theory of politeness (1987) has been selected and applied to Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables as it suits the direction and intention of the present study in examining fictional characters’ verbal interactions, mainly that of Anne Shirley, and the ways in which politeness in these interactions are read as linguistic or verbal manifestations of her character to create her identity as Anne of Green Gables and to achieve a harmonious social life and friendly relationships with other people in Avonlea.

To be more specific, the researcher intends to apply Brown and Levinson’s (1987) five linguistic strategies supplemented by Rossen-Knill’s model(1995) to ensure the classification of directives, as a linguistic realization of such strategies, depending on the ‘discourse goal’ which is defined as “the speaker’s attempt to get the hearer to do some act” (Searle, 1979). Spencer-Oatey’s rapport management (2002) is also implemented to account for Anne’s efforts in establishing her social identity. The next section will provide a brief review of the pragmatic theory of politeness as proposed by its founders, Brown and Levinson, and as modified by some later critics. Then, some of the conceptual framework of this theory will be applied to one speech event from Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables which is that of having the new Minister’s wife to tea.

In spite of the considerable amount of criticism, today’s large body of research on politeness continues to find its inspiration in Brown and Levinson’s pioneering work. It is also believed that the core concepts of the theory of politeness, as originally proposed (1978) and then revised (1987) by Brown and Levinson are still held by many to be operationally valid despite the alleged universality of them (Ermida, 2006). Among such concepts is that of ‘face’ which has been considered as the most central component. This concept is derived from that of Goffman (1967) and from the English folk term which tied ‘face’ up with some notions of being embarrassed, humiliated, ‘losing face’ and ‘saving face’ but saving face may be achieved at the expense of our interlocutor’s face.

Face has two aspects namely, positive face and negative face. Positive face focuses on the speaker’s positive image and his desire to be liked and approved and it is the kernel of ‘familiar’ or ‘joking’ behavior. Negative face, on the other hand, refers to the speaker’s right not to be imposed upon. It is the heart of respect behavior. However, Spencer-Oatey (2002) believes it is more than this. She demonstrates that the concept of face is too individually focused on and should a social identity component be included. To her also, face is not only a personal/individual concern; it can also be a group concern.

In their attempt to relate the concept of ‘face’ to social interaction, Brown and Levinson argue that the most common place speech acts negotiated in everyday conversation, such as advising, requesting, ordering, questioning, inviting, promising, criticizing, offering, complementing, apologizing and others carry an element of risk, for they threaten the ‘public self-image’ that every member of a society wants to claim for himself (1987: 61). Such acts are called ‘face threatening acts’ (hence FTAs) as they do not satisfy the ‘face wants’ of either speaker or hearer or both.

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(Author: Nawal F. Abbas

Published by Sciedu Press)

An Illuminative Evaluation on Practical Art, Craft and Design Instruction: The Case of Botswana

In Botswana, art, craft and design has always been part of the people’s lives. It was used to communicate their ways of lives. Chanda (1993) noted that, through the ages, art and craft in African countries has integrated and celebrated different aspects of life, politics, religion, personal beliefs and ways of responding to the outside world. In Botswana during the pre-colonial era, art and craft activities were passed from one generation to another, through informal oral and practical education. Girls learned pottery and weaving from their mothers, grandmothers and aunts. Boys learned wood carving from their fathers, grandfathers and uncles to create objects such as stools, wooden spoons, wooden plates.

Despite the fact that Batswana (citizens of Botswana) greatly valued their arts, the introduction of ‘modern’ education overlooked its importance. This resulted in teachers treating it as a subject for the low achievers. As a result, teachers have not been committed to teaching art, craft and design as a subject in which there is valuable knowledge, understanding and skills to be acquired. There was no syllabus to guide teachers on what to teach. The Report of the National Commission on Education (RNCE, 1993) then saw the need to make the curriculum more practical and suggested that immediate initiatives should be taken to develop the art, craft and design syllabi.

Responding to this report, the Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE, 1994) recommended that “a wide range of practical subjects be included in the primary curriculum in order to help students develop an understanding and appreciation of technology, manipulative skills and familiarity with tools, equipment and materials” (Curriculum Development and Evaluation Division, 2002, p. 1). This resulted in the introduction of the Creative and Performing Arts (CAPA) programme for lower level (standard one to four) in 2002, which is comprised of four disciplines (art and craft, design and technology, music and physical education). The CAPA syllabus’ main aims, are to help students develop creativity skills; problem solving aptitudes, critical thinking competencies, aesthetic recognition and appreciation, psychomotor dexterity along with positive attitudes towards practical work and productivity (Curriculum Development and Evaluation Department, 2002).

The importance of having a curriculum as a blueprint is very critical (Cleave and Sharp, 1986). These authors advise that primary school teachers need guidelines with supportive frameworks to help them develop confidence in their art, craft and design teaching. Cleave and Sharp (1986) explains that “the aim of such guidelines would be to contribute to curriculum cohesion, sequencing and continuity in the arts throughout the school” (p. 44). However, these guidelines could only achieve their goals if educators had sufficient knowledge, understanding and the skills to translate or implement the curricular in relation to the government policies. CAPA identifies specific objectives and practical activities in which students may be engaged to develop practical skills, and hence promote productivity. This contextual feature guided the exploration of how well primary school teachers engaged learners in practical activities. Little research has been conducted in relation to CAPA teaching. Research that has been reviewed revealed that most primary school teachers in Botswana have limited knowledge and skills in CAPA disciplines (Phuthego, 2006; Moalosi. and Molwane, 2008; and Mannathoko, 2009). Thus, having basic pedagogical knowledge in teaching, does not guarantee that teachers will successfully handle other disciplines.

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(Author: Magdeline C. Mannathoko, Thenjiwe E. Major

Published by Sciedu Press)

Curriculum Pearls for Faculty Members

Curricula, as an etymological, epistemological, and phenomenological concept has attracted the attention of educators for decades (Posner, 2004; Wiles & Bondi, 2007). Historically, defining the term “curriculum” led to discussions on how to develop universal education (Marsh & Willis, 2003; Marshall, Sears, & Schubert, 2000). Etymologically, the word curriculum originated from the Latin currere, meaning running course (Posner, 2004; Wiles & Bondi, 2007). James (2009) explained the epistemology of curricula by examining the two complex relations. The first relation was based on the educational aims of formal knowledge defined in learning objectives and embedded in curriculum. The second relation connected the human factor such as teacher and student to the curricula. Defining the curricula phenomenologically as a set of courses has led to consensus that curricula were “a series of courses the student must get through” (Posner, 2004, p. 11). Curricula were considered a matrix of courses during the course of student’s education.

Authors have been trying to define the concept “curriculum” for years; however, a single definition of curricula does not exist (Marsh & Willis, 2003; Marshall, et al., 2000; Olivia, 2005; Posner, 2004; Wiles & Bondi, 2007). According to Posner (2004), one single definition of curricula should not exist because “there is no panacea in education” but a “myriad curriculum alternatives” (p. 4). Posner suggested defining curricula by examining two levels of curriculum theoretical principals. The first level included the following seven concepts: a) scope and sequence, or series of intended learning or objectives; b) syllabus or course plan of study; c) content outline, or list of organized instructions (curriculum plan); d) standards, or ground work for the course with expected achievements and outcomes; e) textbooks, or day-to-day guide; f) course of study, or series of steps the student should complete (curricula); and g) all planned experiences.

The second level attempted to explain the nature and the meaning of a curriculum by integrating the following five curriculum concepts: a) formal curriculum, official or written; b) operational curriculum, active in practice; c) hidden curriculum, not acknowledged; d) null curriculum, not taught; and e) extra curriculum or teaching experiences occurring outside the school system (Posner, 2004). Each concept led to different interpretation and thereafter application of curriculum concepts (Posner, 2004). A competent educator should be cognizant of the coexisting concepts when designing comprehensive curricula for any type of organizations.

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(Author: Milena P. Staykova

Published by Sciedu Press)

Creating an Interactive Environment for Software Application Learning in Graduate Programs

There is no doubt that research on using computer technology to enhance teaching and learning is rapidly growing. To meet the computer skill demands in almost every field, schools have been including software application learning in their curriculum. However, compared with the numerous studies on how to enhance teaching and learning with technology, the investigation on the methods and strategies of teaching software applications itself has rarely been conducted. It seems that, in the general view, teaching software application is all about repeated operations and does not have much room for innovative teaching approaches. While several studies introduced some tutorials or process capturing software (such as screen recorder software) for the convenience of self-directed learning on software, the development of classroom teaching methods and the investigation of its effectiveness are lacking.

Some of the few studies indicated that most of the software application instructors used a systematic approach for teaching and considered it most effective (Lambrecht, 1999; McEwen, 1996). Their systematic learning approach was based on a behavioral learning theory assumption, in which learning is regarded as a behavioral response to stimuli (Chen & Ray, 2005). In this approach, instruction usually involves step-by-step directions and teacher-centered methods to complete learning tasks (McEwen, 1996). Lambrecht (1999) concluded that this systematic approach for software teaching is better for novices, but not for advanced learners who seek problem solving abilities and concept transferability in the real world.

In graduate programs, students are in an advanced education environment in which they should be capable of self-discipline and self-direction. Research techniques, decision-making skills, and problem solving in teams are essential skills to be acquired in graduate programs (Campbell, 1996). They should have confidence to work constructively in teams as part of establishing professional skills (Hudson, 2000). They should be able to reach the ultimate goal of a graduate program, being independent and lifelong learners (Lapane, 2007). Therefore, instruction in graduate programs should not be simply filled with lectures and “objective” tests. Particularly, the small size feature of classes in graduate education, which usually distinguishes it from undergraduate, allows the instruction to be better tailored to fit students’ background and individual needs (Campbell, 1996).

In the field of design and technology, many production courses (e.g. webpage design, computer graphics, multimedia, animation, film or video) demand knowledge in the use of specialized commercial software. Compared to the deficiency of self-paced learning materials several years ago, learners can now find an abundance of well-developed teaching websites, textbooks, video clips, professional teaching CDs for most commercial software. Richly developed learning content can be easily accessed. Ideally, this would allow more time to be set aside for the development of concepts and ideas rather than using valuable class time for teaching and learning “how to use” software; that is, time would be better spent on the process of creation and “how to apply” advanced software techniques for a better quality production or solution. However, in practice, asking students to learn on their own is still something “easier said than done.”

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(Author: Sy-Chyi Wang, Jin-Yuan Chern

Published by Sciedu Press)

Asynchronous Versus Synchronous Learning in Pharmacy Education

Distance education is designed to deliver education to students who may not physically be at a specific site. Instead, students and instructors communicate with one another through the use of technology. In recent years, many health profession programs have created distance campus models and currently 20% of all pharmacy schools have adopted this form of education (Harrison, Congdon, & DiPiro, 2010).

Distance campuses are often created to increase access to major medical institutions, provide greater access of pharmacy education to placebound students, and increase class size. As the trend to develop more distance education campuses continues, it is important to understand the methods by which pharmacists are now being trained, the effectiveness of this model, and the satisfaction of those students completing their degree in this fashion.

The University of Florida College of Pharmacy (UFCOP) was one of the first Colleges of Pharmacy to begin a distance campus program. The University developed three distance education sites for their entry level Doctor of Pharmacy program in the Fall of 2002. One of the initial considerations was whether to utilize synchronous or asynchronous learning. Synchronous learning is defined as simultaneous interaction between 2 or more participants (Ashley, 2003; Cook, Levinson, Garside, Dupras, Erwin, & Montori, 2008).

Examples of synchronous learning include online chat, instant messaging, white boarding, file sharing, audioconferencing, webconferencing, and videoconferencing (Ashley, 2003; Cook et al., 2008). Despite the advantage of “real time” learning, general disadvantages including cost, technology requirements, and scheduling may limit the usefulness of synchronous learning (Ashley, 2003). Cost and consistent information technology (IT) support at each location were considered major disadvantages to using synchronous learning entirely in the UFCOP program.

Asynchronous learning allows communication to occur over a period of time, rather than simultaneously. General advantages to asynchronous learning include access to information and resources regardless of time, collaboration amongst groups of individuals regardless of time zone, and sharing of collective knowledge. However, asynchronous learning requires one to be self-disciplined and tends to be less personal than synchronous learning (Ashley, 2003). Examples of asynchronous learning include discussion boards, web blogs, email, streaming audio, streaming video, narrated slide shows, web-based training, databases, web books, surveys, shared calendars, and website links (Ashley, 2003).

A review of the literature indicates distance education utilizing synchronous and asynchronous learning is occurring within various institutions. The purpose of this article is to review the literature highlighting advantages and disadvantages of both forms of learning in order for educators to understand the method in which pharmacy students are being trained today.

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(Author: Carol A Motycka, Erin L St. Onge, Jennifer S Williams

Published by Sciedu Press)

Verification Theory of Meaning and the Concept of Time and Space: Implications for Einstein Relativity Theory

The importance of meaning in the use of words and language cannot be quantified. Without making clear the meaning of the words we use, communication will be vague. Meaning brings about clarity and gives light to the understanding. This of course explains why we have a lot of theories as regards meaning. Some of these theories fall under the category of denotation or connotation.

The Logical Positivists, otherwise known as the “Vienna circle” are a group of philosophers, mathematicians and scientists, who gathered in Vienna in the 1920’s. These men felt that philosophy in the past had been largely given over to useless controversy over metaphysical and normative problems that were in principle insoluble (including such problems as those of time and space).

The quest of this group was a very laudable one because of the importance of making sense when we communicate using language, especially for the purpose of clarity. But we shall discover that despite their noble quest, the solution they proffer in terms of the principle of verifiability as a criterion for truth and meaning, multiplied even more, the problem of meaning when it is analyzed linguistically in relation to Einstein’s theory of relativity and his interpretation of time and space. Let us begin our discourse by examining briefly the “theory of meaning”.

The traditional doctrine of “meaning” possesses extension (the sets of things a term is true of) and intension (something internal or mental concepts). Thus traditional semantic theory leaves out only two contributions to the determination of extension- the contribution of society and the contribution of the real world.

Sifting out linguistic meaning from words requires philosophical analysis. What are we saying about a linguistic expression when we specify its meaning? This is the basis of analysis. The three modes of explanation of meaning are the referential, the ideational and behavioural. The question to be posed here is: do all meaningful expressions refer to something? Alston (1964) opines that:

If the referential theory of meaning is based on the fundamental insight that language is used to talk about things, the ideational and behavioural theories are based on an equally fundamental insight that words have the meaning they do only because of what human beings do when they use language (p.19).

Every meaningful linguistic expression as exemplify in the referential theory of meaning encounters problems even in those areas where the referential theorist feels more secure. This, of course, only goes to show that alternative mode of meaningful explanation of words via language has to be devised. The verifiability theory of meaning is a referential theory by its presuppositions and assumptions. It is also seen as incorporating the canons of empirical science. These will be made clear shortly and that will be our major focus in this work as far as theory of meaning is concern.

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(Author: Jerome P. Mbat, Emmanuel Iniobong Archibong

Published by Sciedu Press)

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